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CONSTRUCTION
An international journal dedicated to the investigation and innovative use of materials in construction and repair
Construction and Building Materials provides an international forum for the dissemination of research and development in the field of constructionand building materials and their application in new works.. A where-would-you-be-without-it handbook covering every single important step in building design and construction, now updated to include key changes in design and construction practices. Surveys materials, structures, soil mechanics and foundations, building types, hardware, insulation, acoustics, plumbing, and more–all the material that will help architects, engineers, contractors, and others work better, faster, and smarter. Includes new design specifications; the latest developments in seismic and wind design criteria; new building systems and material; updated building codes throughout; NFPA requirements; and new wood material and codes. 
CONCRETE FRAME STRUCTURES
Concrete frame structures are a very common - or perhaps the most common- type of modern building.  As the name suggests, this type of building is formed of a frame, or skeleton of concrete.  Horizontal members of this frame are called beams, and vertical members are called columns.  Humans walk on flat planes of concrete called slabs.  Of these, the column is the most important, as it is the primary load-carrying element of the building (See figure 2 at the bottom of the page for an illustration of each of the major parts of a frame structure). If you damage a beam in a building, it will usually affect only one floor, but damage to a column could bring down the entire building.
LOAD BEARING MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
A modern example of load bearing masonry construction for a residential building. Note the absence of concrete columns and beams. Load bearing masonry construction was the most widely used form of construction for large buildings from the 1700s to the mid-1900s. It is very rarely used today for large buildings, but smaller residential-scale structures are being built. It essentially consists of horizontal floor slabs resting on thick, heavy masonry walls of brick or stone. Today's construction relies on frames of light but strong materials, that support floor slabs and have very thin, light internal and external walls. The key idea with this construction was that every wall would act as a load carrying element. You could not punch holes in a wall to connect two rooms - you would damage the structure if you did so. The immense weight of the walls helped to hold the building together  The floor slabs were made of horizontal wooden beams, joists, and planks. A joist is a smaller wooden beam that rests on two larger beams. The buildings were covered with sloping wooden roofs, that could be finished with clay tile, wood or stone shingles, or metal plating such as thin sheets of copper. Other such buildings had flat terraces, that were built by pouring a concrete layer over a wooden floor, and then finishing with some form of tile or stone to provide a strong, waterproof finish
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